No reports of piracy against whites have been received, but from evidence found by Captain Cloman in the Selungan affair, it would appear that piracies against Sandakan traders have been committed recently.Footnote 122. Fishing is important and marine products include pearls, pearl shells, bêche-de-mer (trepang), shark fins, and turtle eggs. In September 1909, a rumour that a British customs cutter had been pirated and the captain along with thirteen crew members murdered, however, proved to be false; New York Times (27 September 1909). There was also a conviction that the United States needed strategic bases in Asia if American companies were to be able to compete successfully with European enterprises.Footnote 87, The Philippines was by far the largest of the overseas territories that the United States acquired as a result of the war with Spain. The latter had all along been an important foundation for the Sultanate, but the Spanish onslaught made the promotion of trade, particularly with the British in north Borneo, more important. Should they nevertheless attempt to do so, Dewey said, the Navy would consider them to be pirates and run down the gunboats and sink them.Footnote 96 The outcome of the standoff was that the Navy took the seagoing gunboats while the Army was allowed to keep ten shallow-draft steamers, some of which were equipped with heavy cannon and machine guns, to support military operations. In the context of these wars maritime raiding, including attacks on the enemy’s commercial vessels and coastal raids for the purpose of taking slaves and booty, and as a means of reprisal, was undertaken by both parties. Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. The earliest raid that can safely be attributed to Jikiri seems to be the attack on Tao Tila on 1 November 1907; Mindanao Herald (25 January 1908); see also below. Apart from Europeans and Americans, the Chinese who traded and operated small stores and businesses around the Sulu Archipelago were the main target of Jikiri and his band. 2020. 160 Mindanao Herald (28 December 1907); see also ARGMP 1908, 25, for Salip’s role in sponsoring the perpetrators of the raid and other Jolo outlaws. The dinghy managed to get away. He had no hesitation about imposing such a government by firm military action and to set clear examples to the Moros. These circumstances notwithstanding, allegations of piracy continued to be used as a justification for further Spanish advances in the southern Philippines. 109 US Congress, Treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, 49, 26−7; for the Sultan’s suggestion, see 67. 171 Coats, ‘Philippine Constabulary’, 24–5. In his annual report for the fiscal year 1907–08, he wrote: Since the withdrawal, about a year ago, of the small, light-draft gunboats which were employed by the Spanish and American governments alike for the suppression of piracy in the Sulu seas, there has been a revival of lawlessness which nothing but the continued presence of these vessels will prevent. In the wake of the Spanish–American War of 1898, however, the Spanish garrison at Jolo was greatly reduced, and the colonial gunboats were no longer able to protect the operations of Tiana and Tan. In order to avoid this Otis dispatched a force of 700 troops to occupy the fort at Jolo.Footnote 98. Annual Digest (1932), 164−5; cf. To this effect, a mission led by Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to Sulu in mid 1899 with instructions to negotiate an agreement with the sultan and the leading datus. 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