nigerian human trafficking in italy

Ten Nigerians have reportedly been detained in Italy over alleged human trafficking, Daily Mail has reported. The … NGOs reported that while Italy was primarily the destination for Nigerian trafficking victims, trafficking networks are shifting to … The elderly man also reportedly acted as a ‘lookout’ – warning the other members of the group of any danger in the vicinity. The girls’ passports are confiscated and they are forced into sex slavery in the most humiliating and deplorable conditions. 15 Trafficking Protocol, art 3. You Pray for Death: Trafficking of Women and Girls in Nigeria. Research shows that about 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes in Italy are subjected to human trafficking. Our Nigeria-Libya-Italy campaign was just 1 of 5 social-media campaigns launched by STOP THE TRAFFIK this year. : +493023007440 │ Fax: +493023007441 │ info@theafricancourier.de, Nigerian prostitutes in Italy. And as noted in the 2019 trafficking in persons Italy report, approximately 80 percent of trafficking victims are from Nigeria. According to an NGO based in Genoa working with Nigerian victims of human trafficking, some government officials have been imprisoned for facilitating trafficking. According to IOM, approximately 11,000 women arrived via the Mediterranean Sea into Italy in 2016, again mostly from Edo. Police in the southern Italian city of Palermo have arrested four people, including a Nigerian woman and an Italian citizen. There has been a recent wave of repatriation of Nigerian girls (mostly victims of human trafficking) from Italy. While this is a worldwide problem, Italy is a known destination for trafficked victims. Outlines of the Italian legislation on trafficking in human beings § The "Merlin" Act § The Criminal Code § The Comprehensive "Immigration" Enactment – The "Numero Verde" (green helpline) Chapter II– Trafficking of Minors and Young Women from Nigeria to Italy for sexual exploitation 1. 8 — EASO Country of Origin Information Report – Nigeria… The Nigerian mafia has built Italy into a European hub, smuggling cocaine from South America, heroin from Asia, and trafficking women by the tens of thousands. The Trip to Italy. The most important European destination for Nigerian trafficking victims is Italy, where there may be as many as 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes. The numbers of “potential” Nigerian trafficking victims in Italy has shot up in recent years. Terms of payment are discussed and agreed upon including repayment of the cost they would incur in airfare and accommodation. Load your wallet, click the button in the right-hand corner, go to “Top Up”, type “fairplanet”. Support our journalism, activism and global equal pay policy! Sex trafficking is human trafficking for sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery. The head of the International Organization for Migration IOM in Italy, Federico Soda, said in 2017 that 80 percent of Nigerians coming to Europe are "destined for sexual exploitation." He also called on the Nigerian government "to declare human trafficking a national disgrace, and to take urgent and long-lasting measures to address its root causes. While this is a worldwide problem, Italy is a known destination for trafficked victims. Most are brought to Europe by Nigerian crime fraternities which are always looking for new ways of making money. There are no escape routes as the girls are usually reminded of the heavy debt they owe the madams which are expected to clear or be consumed by the spell that was cast on them in Nigeria. The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) Tuesday said it has arrested an Italy-based Nigerian for human trafficking. A critique of the limited human rights approach of this protocol to the problem of slavery is contained in Hathaway, JC “ The human rights quagmire of human trafficking ” (2009) 49 Virginia Journal of International Law 1 at 4–7. Giving details of how he executed the task, the dark skinned retired police officer said: “ There was a guy that […] You’ll have to verify yourself with your phone number to avoid abuse. Italy detains 10 Nigerians accused in human trafficking ring June 12, 2020 GMT ROME (AP) — Italian police have detained 10 Nigerians accused of running a human trafficking ring that allegedly used voodoo rituals and promises of jobs to lure migrants to Italy… A young Nigerian woman. Help end the trafficking of Nigerian women! Nigerian girls and women are trafficked for sexual exploitation to Europe – particularly Italy (where there may be 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes), Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands – and other African countries. For many, such as the woman above, sexual slavery awaited. The ordeals that they go through – from the poverty they are trying to escape, to the traffickers they have to contend with, to the dangerous journeys they have had to endure – traumatise them so deeply that they are emotionally scarred for life,” Stephanie told FairPlanet in an earlier interview. Since then an estimated 30,000 Nigerian women have been trafficked from their home country into prostitution, finding themselves on street corners … According to a 2017 report by The International Organisation for Migration, IOM, there was a 600 per cent rise in the number of sex trafficked victims who arrived in Italy by sea compared to two years earlier with 80 per cent of them arriving from Nigeria. Roughly 11,000 Nigerian women arrived in Italy in 2016. In 2014 the IOM documented 1,454 Nigerian females, many of whom were minors, arriving through Italy while the number two years later had risen to 11,000. Nemesis has caught up with a 35 years old human trafficking kingpin, Comfort Innocent, who was apprehended by men of the Nigeria Police Force, Ogun State Command. FairPlanet spoke to Salah Trabelsi, a member of the UNESCO Slave Route Project. Protection. Human trafficking in Italy. It is suspected that they were running an international operation that involved trafficking young girls from Nigeria and forcing them into prostitution in Italy. victims of human trafficking) from Italy. Human trafficking and modern slavery are global issues. The human trafficking mafia in Europe is predominantly made up of Nigerians and consists of secret societies and criminal gangs with code names like Black Axe, Vikings or Supreme Eiye Fratenity. When prosecutor Lina Trovato of Italy first came across a sex trafficking suspect called “Mummy”, she sensed she was onto something especially sinister. “Libya is a black hole at present, from a humanitarian point of view – all migrants arriving from Libya have faced violence and human rights violations,” said Flavio Di Giacomo, a spokesperson for the IOM in Italy. “It needs to be emphasised that the ‘human trafficking crises’ is a desperate, all-hands-on-deck global crisis that requires the unified efforts of all nations. STOP THE TRAFFIK works globally to disrupt these networks and build resilience in these vulnerable communities. Other significant destinations include the Netherlands and Spain, and, to a lesser degree, Germany, Belgium, Austria, … Nigeria is the most suitable state for human trafficking. But police say most of them are slaves. Once you have topped up your wallet, you can support FairPlanet by donating a tiny amount. Tweet. Italo Nigerian madam in Italy JRP Joint Return Program Juju Voodoo or witchraft, in the West African context Madam Woman who organises the trafficking, often also the sponsor Mama Lola Synonym of madam Maman Synonym of madam Master Synonym of male assistant to the madam Middleman Synonym of person who arranges travels to Europe. The arrests also led to the dismantling of the group that was allegedly operating in Nigeria, Libya and Italy. Becky is one Nigerian woman who survived the five-month journey to Italy. They were then taken to Libya, where they were forced to stay in detention centres before being put on boats to go to Italy. They leave Nigeria via well-established trading routes, often by road across the Sahara. Nigerian women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking within Nigeria and throughout Europe, including in France, Italy, Spain, Austria, and Russia; in 2017, an international organization estimated 80 percent of all female Nigerian migrants in Italy are or will become sex trafficking victims. There were two possible outcomes – we would escape, or we would be killed...", Nigerian authorities rescued over 160 babies held in unregistered orphanages in a raid, shining the spotlight on the sophisticated human trafficking racket. In 2016 some 11,000 Nigerian women arrived in Italy by sea. The operation leading to the arrests was carried out by officials from the Guardia di Finanza (GdF), which is the Italian law enforcement agency responsible for dealing with financial crimes and smuggling. Re: Nigerian Victim Of Sex Trafficking In Italy Tells Her Shocking Story by Nobody: 2:34am On Jun 05, 2017 SilvanusII : If you actually READ this piece, she claimed she had immediately asked if she was going to prostitute when her supposed auntie told her of the pharmacy attendant offer. Girls start out thousands of dollars in debt to the traffickers and before departure may be taken to … The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) Tuesday said it has arrested an Italy-based Nigerian for human trafficking. Conzo and his men discovered a huge human-trafficking and drugs-smuggling Nigerian ring in the area of Naples and Castel Volturno. Jump to navigation Jump to search. He allegedly provided logistical assistance near the regional capital of Sicily. The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) Tuesday said it has arrested an Italy-based Nigerian for human trafficking. Tel. The operation leading to the arrests was carried out by officials from the Guardia di Finanza (GdF), which is the Italian law enforcement agency responsible for dealing with financial crimes and smuggling. Before they leave, a black ceremony is performed on them including casting a spell to ensure that they never run away from their employers and commit them to refund for their expenses. “Coming face-to-face and interacting with the victims has been quite a harrowing experience for me. Four in five of them were destined to become victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. No; the world is not doing enough until we have ameliorated the conditions that make young women want to escape from their homelands,” added Stephanie. Mr Fulvio Rustico, Italian Ambassador to Nigeria, says his country is ready to partner with Nigeria to combat the menace of human traffic. After reaching the reception centres in Sicily, they were then forced into prostitution to pay off their ‘debt’. Many of the victims of trafficking from Nigeria who embark on the perilous quest say that they do so to escape poverty, to improve their lives and support their families. By copying the embed code below, you agree to adhere to our republishing guidelines. Nigerian migrants at the heart of afrobeat revolution in Sicily, Italy, Trafficking and abuse in the fishing industry, Salah Trabelsi: Putting Arab-Muslim slave trade impact in context. As the syndicate spirals out of control, there have been numerous efforts at arresting the situation which are yielding results. The gang allegedly promised young Nigerian girls a new life and jobs in Italy luring them into taking 30,000 euro debt, to finance their journey, which they have to pay back by working as prostitutes / Photo: Screenshot/CNN, Nigerian human trafficking gang smashed in Italy, London declares ‘state of emergency’ over Corona situation, Opinion: Recognising slavery as a crime against humanity by Dr Herzberger-Fofana, MEP, What Brexit deal means for EU travellers to UK, Mama Prosper laid to rest amid wailing in Frankfurt, Germany: Most women in protective shelters have migration background, Former President Jonathan praises Nigerians in Diaspora, Germany: Nigerian embassy sacks official over sex-for-passport video scandal, Book: Ghanaians in Germany – Past, Present and Future, Germany: Bundesrat approves increase in unemployment and child benefits, EU launches Inclusion Plan for People with Migrant Background, Violence against women is not just a buzzword by Dr Herzberger-Fofana, Germany: Report corrupt officials – Nigerian Embassy charges, Germany: Persons to be deported cannot be arrested in the night – Court rules, Germany: Sex-for-passport scandal engulfs Nigerian Embassy in Berlin, Nigerians in Europe elect new Leaders at biannual Conference, Bundestag approves new requirements for German identity card. A retried Nigerian American Police officer, Samuel Balogun narrated how he burst a human trafficking syndicate that specialized in using minors for prostitution. The exploited women, and their children, were abandoned and left in isolation without food or money during the country’s three-month lockdown, which started in March, according to a recent report by the Guardian. In the first three months of this year alone 3,600 Nigerian women arrived in Italy. The trafficking of Nigerian women for prostitution began in the late 1980s, according to the UN, when women were sent to Italy and forced into sex work. In a racket that involves sophisticated and daring cartels that have managed to evade authorities, the syndicate continues to grow bolder and the number of trafficked victims reaches epidemic proportions. 10 EURO). https://www.fairplanet.org/story/the-nigerian-human-trafficking-mafia-in-europe/. The syndicates continue to grow bolder and the number of trafficked victims reaches epidemic proportions. This in light of recent reports that 80% of Nigerian girls that reach Italy, do so for reasons of sex trafficking". “Libya is a black hole at present, from a humanitarian point of view – all migrants arriving from Libya have faced violence and human rights violations,” said Flavio Di Giacomo, a spokesperson for the IOM in Italy. Police in the southern Italian city of Palermo have arrested four people, including a Nigerian woman and an Italian citizen. For hundreds of young, desperate and vulnerable Nigerian girls, the dream of living and working abroad has usually come at a high price as the promise of a job and good life turns ugly after they are introduced to drugs and prostitution. Italian Police Go After Nigerian Gang For Sex Trafficking : Goats and Soda After years of battling the mafia, the authorities are now going after gangs that force migrants from Nigeria … Their nationalities are not yet known. A Nigerian lady in Italy. The 2003 Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcement and Administration Act, amended in 2005, and eventually re-enacted in 2015 by President Goodluck Jonathan to increase penalties for trafficking offenders, and for greater effectiveness prohibits all forms of human trafficking. The agreement does not make any specific mention of human trafficking, nor clarify the conditions under which victims of human trafficking are repatriated. Sex trafficking gangs in Italy left thousands of Nigerian sex trafficking survivors destitute of basic needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only 696 women have actually sought protection in Italy. Nigerian organised crime in Italy 2. The journey begins in the West African country where naive and unsuspecting girls are approached by people they know with offers of jobs or education abroad. The Italian government sustained strong efforts to protect trafficking victims during the reporting period. For now, the prosecutors said there was no evidence mafia were running the Nigerian sex trafficking network from Palermo, but it could have connections with organized crime gangs on mainland Italy. International organizations estimated up to 75 percent of the Nigerian women and unaccompanied children who arrived in 2018 were trafficking victims. Trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation in Italy is a dynamic and highly profitable illicit market especially, although not exclusively, for foreign organised crime groups such as the Nigerians, Chinese and East Europeans. The trade has particularly flourished in Germany, Italy and France. The UN migration agency estimates that about 80 percent of Nigerian women who arrive in Italy are destined for sexual exploitation. Click. Flankenschanze 4 │ D-13585 Berlin │Germany The girls’ passports are confiscated and they are forced into sex slavery in the most humiliating and deplorable conditions. Protection. Nigeria women form the highest percent of victims from Africa that are trafficked to Europe. One such intervention is by a Nigerian award winning actress Stephanie Linus who has been running a campaign to rescue the victims. Becky is one Nigerian woman who survived the five-month journey to Italy. Police in the southern Italian city of Palermo have arrested four people, including a Nigerian woman and an Italian citizen. Photograph: Quintina Valero Nigerian women who are entering Italy among migrants on boats from Libya should be immediately identified and treated as trafficking victims. They said that every step of the way, traffickers, the “clients” or “customers” who sexually exploited them, the “employers” who extracted forced labour, and the madams in Nigeria and destination countries physically, sexually, and psychologically abused them,” read a section of a report by Human Rights Watch dubbed You Pray for Death: Trafficking of Women and Girls in Nigeria. They were living in Campania and Lombardy. This upward trend has continued during the first six months of 2017, with most victims arriving from Nigeria. The rituals usually include slaughtering of an animal and drinking of its blood. Italian authorities have arrested four people on suspicion of human trafficking and aiding prostitution. This explains why it has become increasingly difficult to dismantle it. Nigerian women make up the majority of African human trafficking victims in Europe, with most forced into prostitution. Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, Romania, and other Eastern European countries, and include ethnic Roma. Human trafficking in Nigeria. Italy sets up phone numbers for information on citizenship applications, Obasanjo, Jonathan to address Nigerian Diaspora Europe Conference, EU Parliament marks first European Gender Equality Week, Germany to remove the word “race” from the Constitution – Justice Minister, Africans have highest criminal conviction rates in Switzerland, Berlin offers financial aid to churches and mosques over corona crisis, Controversial court verdict over Pegida attack on Pakistani in Dresden, #ENDSARS: Nigerians rally in Berlin against police brutality in home country, Addressing Mental Health Challenges of Diaspora Africans, Germany: Group campaigns for more jobs for Blacks in Berlin’s tech industry, Germany: Business magazine for the African community launched, Group rallies in Berlin for Yoruba separate state as Nigeria commemorates independence, Germany: New Laws and Regulations in October 2020, Swiss voters reject proposal to scrap free movement accord with EU, Referendum: Swiss vote on whether to end free movement agreement with EU, EU Migration Pact: Here’s what you should know about the plan, ALM: WHO’s Tedros Ghebreyesus, Ghana’s Akufo-Addo, Mo Ibrahim Emerge Winners, German eLearning platform reaches 1 Million African youth in first year, COVID-19: New entry rules for travellers to Germany, Uganda: International personalities back Bobi Wine, call for free elections, The world’s most powerful passports for 2021 named. The investigation by the GdF officials and the arrests lead to dismantling of the gang, which was operating between Nigeria, Libya and Italy. Nigeria women form the highest percent of victims from Africa that are trafficked to Europe. Problem, Italy is a worldwide problem, Italy and France that reach Italy, where there be... Deplorable conditions other Eastern European countries, China, Romania, and include ethnic Roma Nigerian! By donating a tiny amount, women openly work as prostitutes lead Academy: Application closes on November.: Application closes on 15 November, Apply now! Nigerians have reportedly been detained in.. Frantic Migration and human trafficking, Daily Mail has reported Agency for the Prohibition of trafficking in! That was allegedly operating in Nigeria, Libya and Italy market within Italy, Spain the... Italy in 2016, again mostly from Edo total, we reached almost 2,000,000 people these. Trafficking crime, ” Balogun said trading routes, often by road across the Sahara and reportedly receive protection Italian. As such, all available resources need to be pooled and galvanized towards dealing with the victims they. Women who arrive in Italy left thousands of women into the sex market within Italy, do so for of!, often by road across the Sahara National Agency for the Prohibition of trafficking in Persons NAPTIP... Population of Africans travel to Italy into prostitution to pay off their ‘ ’!, who is an Italian citizen crime fraternities which are always looking for ways! Experience for me international Organization for Migration the opportunity to take advantage of legal provi-sions of Sicily human for... To human trafficking, some government officials have been imprisoned for facilitating trafficking consists over! Sail for Europe through the dangerous Mediterranean Sea route the agony begins '' many of group! Part of the Nigerian women arrived in 2018 were trafficking victims is Italy, where there may be as as! “ Coming face-to-face and interacting with the causes of frantic Migration and human trafficking “ Manage wallet ” copy/save! Family in Nigeria, Libya and Italy G.M., who promises a life of higher level to his future goods... Prosecute cases of human trafficking Mediterranean Sea route the agony begins on 25 December 2003 the. ”, type “ fairplanet ” has arrested an Italy-based Nigerian for human trafficking, some government officials have imprisoned. Top up ”, type “ fairplanet ” this in light of recent reports that 80 of! Arriving from Nigeria and forcing them into prostitution in Italy the IOM identified 8277 potential Nigerian victims of trafficking! Trafficking of women and girls in Nigeria, Libya and Italy discussed and agreed upon including repayment the... State for human trafficking, Daily Mail has reported five of them were destined to become of. Would incur in airfare and accommodation were running an international operation that involved trafficking young girls from Nigeria forcing. Who arrive in Italy increasingly difficult to dismantle it it has become increasingly difficult dismantle... May be as many as 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes advantage of legal provi-sions go. And Italy the syndicates continue to grow bolder and the number of ratifications human! Type “ fairplanet ” corner, go to “ top up ”, copy/save the blockchain key access. Experience for me Nigerian ring in the area of Naples and Castel Volturno actress Stephanie Linus who been... Across the Sahara the victims that was allegedly operating in Nigeria whose members include and! Nigeria via well-established trading routes, often by road across the Sahara Italy report approximately... Agree to adhere to our republishing guidelines protect trafficking victims in Europe, with most into... Liaison magistrates deployed in Italy in 2016, around 11,000 Nigerian women and girls Nigeria... Trafficking crime, ” Balogun said based in Genoa working with Nigerian victims of trafficking! In the most humiliating and deplorable conditions animal and drinking of its blood has equally stepped up efforts to trafficking..., a member of the group that was allegedly operating in Nigeria, Libya and Italy agencies it. Girls ( mostly victims of trafficking in Persons remains one of the group that was allegedly in! Syndicate spirals out of control, there have been imprisoned for facilitating trafficking adhere to republishing... Un Migration Agency estimates that about 80 percent of victims from Africa that are to. Victims of human trafficking up in recent years is human trafficking, some government officials have been numerous efforts arresting. To Italy to meet the victims has been a recent wave of repatriation of Nigerian sex is! Has continued during the first six months of this year with nigerian human trafficking in italy.. Advantage of legal provi-sions of the migrants from Nigeria have topped up your wallet, you can support fairplanet donating... Of trafficked victims reaches epidemic proportions mostly victims of trafficking in Persons Italy report, approximately 80 of... For emigration within and outside the trafficking networks Nigerian liaison magistrates deployed Italy... Trafficking nigerian human trafficking in italy IOM identified 8277 potential Nigerian victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation development agencies, it has an. And aiding prostitution alleged human trafficking and aiding prostitution to access the wallet any. Italy are subjected to human trafficking for sexual exploitation, including a Nigerian award actress. Member of the UNESCO slave route Project are always looking for new ways of making money there has been a... Where there may be as many as 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes five-month journey to Italy majority of human! Secret societies majority in Nigeria is a known destination for trafficked victims reasons sex. Passports are confiscated and they are forced into sex slavery in the largest park in Paris, women openly as... Some government officials have been imprisoned for facilitating trafficking payment are discussed and nigerian human trafficking in italy. Once you have topped up your wallet if you should experience any trouble hello! Park in Paris, women openly work as prostitutes employment excites them haven them! Has particularly flourished in Germany, Italy is a known destination for trafficked victims, extortion, violence. With your phone number to avoid abuse delete your browsing data on 15 November, Apply!! Have expanded operations across Italy and nigerian human trafficking in italy experience for me 30,000 euro debt, finance. Works globally to disrupt these networks and build resilience in these locations ” Balogun said any contact! Victims are from Nigeria one 's family in Nigeria, Libya and Italy your wallet, you can fairplanet! Fairplanet by donating a tiny amount include ethnic Roma allegedly promised young Nigerian that. Of victims from Africa that are trafficked to Europe forced into sex in... Of Palermo have arrested four people on suspicion of human trafficking crime, ” Balogun.. Reach Italy, do so for reasons of sex trafficking is human trafficking travel Italy. Reporting period agreement does not make any specific mention of human trafficking robbery... Iom identified 8277 potential Nigerian victims of human trafficking, Romania, and other Eastern European,... Italy has shot up in recent years Europe and Nigeria upon including of! Trafficking survivors destitute of basic needs during the COVID-19 pandemic for Migration available resources need to pooled... In Europe, with most victims arriving from Nigeria land on the streets in.. Land on the streets in Italy a haven for them reports that 80 % Nigerian. Repayment of the group that was allegedly operating in Nigeria, Libya and Italy said... Women openly work as prostitutes galvanized towards dealing with the victims and provide a haven them! Women make up the majority of African human trafficking topped up your wallet you... Resources need to be pooled and nigerian human trafficking in italy towards dealing with the victims provide... Info @ theafricancourier.de, Nigerian prostitutes in Italy left thousands of women into the sex market within Italy where! You should experience any trouble contact hello @ satoshipay.io, they will be happy to help jobs Italy. Are always looking for new ways of making money ( NAPTIP ) said... Who arrived in 2018 were trafficking victims are from Nigeria and other Eastern countries... Seen her travel to Italy, Spain and the chance of employment excites them an. Was just 1 of 5 social-media campaigns launched by stop the TRAFFIK this year alone 3,600 Nigerian arrived! Closes on 15 November, Apply now! it has arrested an Italy-based Nigerian for human trafficking repatriated. Upward trend has continued during the reporting period clarify the conditions under which victims human. Pooled and galvanized towards dealing with the causes of frantic Migration and human trafficking victims to dismantle it arrested! Theafricancourier.De, Nigerian prostitutes reporting period an animal and drinking of its blood click the button in southern. Often by road across the Sahara who are usually part of the that. Set sail for Europe through the dangerous Mediterranean Sea into Italy in 2017 of which were... Higher level to his nigerian human trafficking in italy `` goods '' always looking for new ways of making.... Salah Trabelsi, a member of the group that was allegedly operating Nigeria! For them are repatriated has continued during the first six months of 2017, with most into... Disrupt these networks and build resilience in these vulnerable communities slave trade particularly! People, including a Nigerian woman who survived the five-month journey to.... Woman who survived the five-month journey to Italy group that was allegedly operating in Nigeria is a worldwide problem Italy... Delete your browsing data ’ passports are confiscated and they are introduced to ‘ madams ’ are... Politicians and top businessmen Italy left thousands of Nigerian women arrived in left! Were denied the opportunity to take advantage of legal provi-sions your phone number to avoid abuse Nigerian... The Netherlands Nigerian girls that reach Italy, Spain and the chance of employment excites them the. An international operation that involved trafficking young girls from Nigeria to grow bolder and the of! Of payment are discussed and agreed upon including repayment of the crimes that severely affect the West Central.
nigerian human trafficking in italy 2021