periyar cardamom hills

[9] Downstream of the Mullaperiyar dam, the Periyar continues to flow northwestward for 35 kilometres (22 mi), exiting the Periyar Tiger Reserve and passing through Vandiperiyar, Elappara and Ayyappancoil to the Idukki reservoir formed by the Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu dams. At the turn of the 20th century, it was fully covered by evergreen forests. The length-width ratio is 6:1. Cassells periyar tiger reserve homestay is sorrounded with misty hills and plantations in the idukki district which captures the essence of all that is wild and wonderful. Mining of sands from these areas impose severe environmental problems to the river basin environment.[75]. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … cardamom county The first ISO Certified four-star resort in Kerala, Cardamom County is conveniently perched on the gradient of a gently sloping hill facing the Periyar Tiger Reserve. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. The Siva temple on the sand bank of Periyar River throngs with devotees every year on Mahasivarathri day. The Church has a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of the Apostle on a rock. [6][7] Due to these reasons, the river has been named the "Lifeline of Kerala". What constitutes the flora, fauna, and avifauna? We liked that the staff was very strict and ensured that everyone wore the Life-jackets and nobody was allowed to move around. The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills … A little disappointed although we did see a few animals at a distance, It has a unique concept of Boat safari...u will love the ride....natural beauty...Amazing experience...could not see any animal but boat ride was awesome. Greenpeace India describes the lower Periyar as "a cesspool of toxins, which have alarming levels of deadly poisons like DDT, endosulfan, hexa and trivalent chromium, lead, cyanide, BHC". In the south, the hills reach up to the westerly spur at Chokkampatti Mala. A great opportunity to learn about the local spices and to see the process behind its cultivation. Nowhere in the subcontinent, has such a large number of taxa been reported from an area comparable to that of the PTR. [57], South of the Mullaperiyar reservoir, at the source of Periyar River, there is an unbroken stretch of about 350 square kilometres (140 sq mi) of sheltered, unmodified rainforests within the Periyar Tiger Reserve. While it met the demand for water on one hand, it led to the deterioration of water quality downstream of the river. Its eastern border is the main Anamalai ridge. In the banks of Periyar Lake lays the pride of Kerala – The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. This valley of Periyar at its source and the valley of Kunthi River in the Silent Valley are the only two forested higher valleys in the Western Ghats left intact even now. Periyar Tiger Reserve is the home to immense greenery, dense forests, and some of the most interesting species of wild animals in their natural habitats. [79][80], The Supreme Court of India, in its verdict on 7 May 2014, stated that although the Periyar rises in and traverses only in the territory of Kerala before entering into Arabian sea, no part of the land in Tamil Nadu abuts river Periyar and that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the Periyar river, the fact that a small part of the Periyar river basin lies in Tamil Nadu is enough to make the river interstate in nature. Very close to the park, you can find many resorts and lodges that provide boat safari or jeep safari from the hotel. [49] The most industrialized zone of Periyar lies in this part of the basin between Angamaly and Cochin, with over 50 large and medium scale industries. Several species of birds, both forest birds as well as the water birds visit the sanctuary. The high Rajamala-Anamudi-Umayamala part of the main Anamalai ridge forms its northern boundary. From its source near Chokkampatti Mala initially Periyar flows north between these two heavily forested ridges. This section of western slope of the Western Ghats is deeply dissected and has geographical as well as ecological characteristics found nowhere in the Western Ghats. [24][25][26] However, the Supreme Court of India in its judgement on the Mullaperiyar issue in 2014, made it clear that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the river Periyar.[27]. The Periyar only has a narrow strip of the Cardamom Hill tableland to flow northward here. These rainforests extend further west into the adjacent Pamba basin within the Gudarakal Forest Range and continue south beyond the Gudarakal Range into the forests of the Achankovil Division. Its eastern boundary is a northwest to southeast ridge separating the Idukki reservoir from the Kallar/Perinjankutty tributary of Periyar which drains the main Cardamom Hills. This area was heavily forested till the 1950s but now only three small fragments of forest vegetation alone remain. Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. [8] Kochi city, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. One of the most important Christian pilgrim centres in Kerala, this holy shrine attracts devotees in very large numbers not only from Kerala but also from the neighbouring states. East of Chakkupallom, a small part of the adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu into Kerala in this section. [43] The dams falling within Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin are the Upper Nirar Weir and the Lower Nirar Dam. [74] In the Periyar river basin, land sand mining is widespread in the plateau region in the highlands. ... Cardamom Hills : for sightseeing, picnic and photography; Suggested places to Stay. Salinity intrusion and pollution dispersion problems arose in the lower reaches of the Periyar due to non-availability of sufficient quantity of water for flushing. Further south, the ridge along the watershed line is heavily forested. [47][48], The Periyar valley Irrigation project in Ernakulam district envisages the utilization of the tail race discharge from the completed Hydel scheme in the Muthirapuzha tributary of river Periyar together with the controlled release from Ennackal dam constructed by Kerala State Electricity Board under Hydel scheme across the Idamalayar tributary and the dependable run off from the uncontrolled catchment of Periyar river, for irrigating an area of 32,800 hectares (81,000 acres) of land lying on the left bank of Periyar river through a network of canal system and controlling devices. Ride towards the famed Periyar Tiger Reserve on narrow winding roads leading through the famed cardamom hills. [39][40] After receiving the waters of the Idamalayar river, the Periyar flows west along the midlands of Ernakulam district. With its crisp, clean air, spice-scented plantations and undulating hills, the region continues to beckon the adventurous traveller. The Vembanad backwaters are connected to the Lakshadweep Sea at Cochin and Kodungallur. km is the hub of the wild animals. Things to do near Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Is this attraction a good place to visit on a, Is this a romantic place or activity that you would suggest for, Is this a must-do if you are traveling with a. Spread over 777 sq.km of the Cardamom Hills of Western Ghats, the Periyar sanctuary is located 137 km from Madurai. [4], The upper part of the Periyar basin extends across the Cardamom Hills. It is drained by the tributary Nirar, which runs in a South Westerly Direction and falls into Idamalayar. It generates a significant proportion of Kerala's electrical power via the Idukki Dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity. To the south of this section is the Idukki sub-plateau and to the southeast, the Cardamom Hills. [22] Here, east of the river channel, the undulating plateau rises up to the watershed line of the Western Ghats. The sanctuary which borders with Tamil Nadu is located in the Cardamom and Pandhalam hills in the Western Ghats. Apart from irrigation on left bank of Periyar, the project also enables a supply of minimum quantity of water through the river to check the intrusion of salinity at lower reaches of the river as well as to meet the requirements of many lift irrigation schemes of river Periyar. Separating these valleys are a jumble of steep hills and flat topped plateaux with scarp faces rearing up to elevations of around 900 to 1,500 metres (3,000 to 4,900 ft). The exceedingly violent impact of very heavy rainfall on a likely geologically unstable part of the Western Ghats where there is extensive faulting has caused accelerated weathering and erosion, carving out a complex of deep valleys on the western face of the High Range Plateau. [73], Illegal sand mining from the Periyar is another major environmental issue. North of this ridge, the Cardamom Hills extend up to the high Munnar saddle. This shrine has now been accorded an international pilgrimage station. This ridge separates the basin of Pamba from Periyar. These dams help divert water from the Nirar tributary of Periyar to the adjacent Sholayar basin. The park is situated in Thekkady, Central Kerala.The whole forest is hilly and is located in the space midst Cardamom hills. Cardamom Hills and Periyar wildlife sanctuary, Kerala, India. • Periyar wildlife sanctuary is set high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the southern Western Ghats. The hills join the Aryankavu pass in the North, Agasthyamalai hills to the South, Palni Hills to the North-East and Anaimalai Hills … On the other hand, the landscape has also witnessed a variety of developmental activities including commercial plantations, hydroelectric and irrigation projects and other forms of infrastructural development that impede the movement of elephants. [41], At Aluva, the river bifurcates into the Marthandavarma and the Mangalapuzha branches. Owing to its scenic location and evergreen ambience, it has become an ideal home to a large number of rare and endangered wildlife species. [28] After flowing 48 kilometres (30 mi) from its origin and on reaching Mount Plateau at its eastern end, it is joined by the west-flowing Mullayar—an important tributary—at Mullakudy. It is located in the Pandalam Hills of the Western Ghats. More than 60 species of mammals are found here; including the Asiatic elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian bison, sambar deer, Indian wild dog, leopard and barking deer. The valley floor is at an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and the ridges on either side often reach 1,800 metres (5,900 ft). Reach Periyar. Periyar and Kumily are the most convenient points from which visitors can easily explore Kerala's beautiful Cardamom hills. The Mullaperiyar dam is constructed at the confluence of the Periyar and Mullayar to create the Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, as well as the Periyar National Park. Kerala states that the Periyar is an intrastate river since no part of it flows through Tamil Nadu. The Idukki Subplateau is at an average elevation of 700 metres (2,300 ft). The sub-plateau extends north from near Ayyappankoil to near Neriamangalam. [46] This portion of the Cardamom Hills is on an average 800 metres (2,600 ft) high. The Parvathimudi-Umayamala ridge forms the northeastern corner of the Lower Periyar Valleys. What is the best time? [80] Essentially, the dispute over the status of the river comes down to the definition of an inter-state river, with Kerala supporting the definition to be according to the course of the river,[15][16] while Tamil Nadu favouring the definition to be according to the catchment area of the river. [36] This area is drained by the tributary Nirar, which is diverted to Tamil Nadu as a part of inter-state Parambikulam-Aliyar Project (PAP) agreement. It is joined by its major tributary, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) upstream of the Bhoothathankettu barrage. The river originates from the high hills of the Western Ghats and the influence of tectonism can be evidenced from the stream pattern and presence of structural valleys. • Approximately 100 km east of Kottayam, 110 km west of Madurai and 120 km southeast of Kochi 6. Kalady started featuring in the spiritual map of India only after its rediscovery in the late 19th century by the then Shankaracharya of Sringeri and the subsequent consecration of a temple for Sri Adi Shankara in 1910.[66]. Cassells periyar tiger reserve homestay is sorrounded with misty hills and plantations in the idukki district which captures the essence of all that is wild and wonderful. The Mangalapuzha branch joins Chalakudy River and empties into the Lakshadweep Sea at Munambam, and the Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara island, going through the Udhyogamandal area and finally draining into the Cochin backwater system (part of Vembanad Lake) at Varappuzha. Since the commissioning of the Idukki project in 1976, tail-race water (between 19.83-78.5 m3/s) has been diverted from the Idukki reservoir through the Moolamattom power station into the Thodupuzha tributary of the Muvattupuzha river. [20] During this journey the Periyar traverses through the Periyar Tiger Reserve, flowing across or forming the boundaries between various sections of the reserve. The Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara Island, and finally drains into the Vembanad backwaters at Varapuzha. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. [9][47][48] Within this section there are a series of deep west-sloping valleys where the valley floors are often at elevations less than 300 metres (980 ft). [61], Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, one of the important bird sanctuaries of India, is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of Periyar River. the source of Periyar River is a narrow valley extending south of Kumily. From the biodiversity value, this unit is of special importance because of its specialized high altitude flora and fauna. Apart from this, the reserve also contains an estimated 323 species of birds, 38 species of fish and 44 species of reptiles. The location itself is quite remarkable which makes its beauty one of a kind. Going downstream, it defines a part of the border between Periyar section[29] of the reserve in the east and Sundaramala section[30] in the west and then the borders between Moolavaigai[31] and Thannikudy[32] sections in the east and Ummikuppan,[33] Mlappara[34] and Aruvioda[35] sections in the west before reaching the Periyar Lake. The average drainage density of the basin is 2.46 km/ km2 with a total number of first order streams of 15,773. [37], The main Periyar below the Idukki reservoir flows due north parallel to the western edge of the Idukki plateau and is joined by the Perinjakutty from the east and Muthirapuzha from the north. A thrilling tiger reserve, it encompasses almost 800 sq. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. The river originates in Kerala, flows entirely through Kerala and joins the Arabian Sea in the Kerala. Our mountain biking tour, also known as The Cardamom Hills Cycling Trail, will take you through mountain roads with spectacularly beautiful cardamom forests and tea gardens. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. The total stream length inclusive of all orders in the basin is 13,291 kilometres (8,259 mi). What are the nearby attractions? This part of the Cardamom Hills is called the Sivagiri Range and it extends south up to Chokkampatti Mala which is at the junction of Pamba and Periyar River basins. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. This park is located in the Pandalam Hills and Cardamom Hills along the border in Tamil Nadu in the south of Western Ghats. Where is the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary? Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. A southwest to northeast ridge called the Chekuthan Mala separates the Idukki Sub-plateau from the Peermade Plateau as well as the main mass of Cardamom Hills. Pandikuzhi is a cradled in picturesque landscape and, exotic flora … Guide will approach you at offers of trips via jeep or taxi to the hills and if you can get a group together, these trips work out as a good travel value. In the north, these hills extend up to the high Munnar saddle running east to Chokkanad Mala and further on to Kolukkumala on the eastern edge of the Ghats. Forests occupy nearly 1,500 square kilometres (580 sq mi) (28%) of the basin area whereas cardamom and settlement with mixed tree crops occupy an area of 322 square kilometres (124 sq mi) and 2,176 square kilometres (840 sq mi) respectively. the boats were very busy and it was almost impossible to take photos. Did you know that cardamom plantation was the Monopoly of the Travancore Kingdom that ruled over Southern Kerala for more than 400 years, yes along with the British towards the end.. The main Western Ghats watershed line forming the eastern border of the Cardamom Hills is highest to the southeast of the Kumily Gap. Vembanad Kol Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. Mullaperiyar dam was one of the earliest instances of inter-basin transfers in the peninsular India. [5] The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala. The landforms of this section are broad valleys, submerged lands with swamps and marshes and subdued sand dunes. Thekkady (Periyar) is 190km (118 miles) from Kochi and 145km (90 miles) from Madurai. Cardamom hills is … It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide and is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. Periyar is a boast of a rich bird life, animal life and plant life. Sprawling over an area of 925sq.km, Periyar National Park; also called Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, is nestled amidst the fascinating Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the great Western Ghats. [9], From Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, some water is diverted eastwards to Tamil Nadu via a tunnel. Early morning walks are recommended as the forest comes to life with the calls of birds and monkeys while a boat trip on the lake is a great way to spot elephants, gaur and deer. [50], The Idukki Dam is the largest hydro-electric project in Kerala and lies on the Periyar. The western edge of Panniyar and Muthirapuzha Basins form the eastern border of this section. The catchment of Kattappana Ar located beyond the southeastern corner of the Idukki reservoir also falls in this portion. [42], The Periyar is an 8th order stream with considerable development of tributary network. Together with the nearby plantation town of Kumily, it forms a convenient base to explore the surrounding Cardamom hills. The park was created from a dense forest which is why it seems so natural. These are mostly crowded within a stretch of 5 kilometres (3 mi) in the Eloor-Edayar region (Udhyogamandal), about 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of Kochi harbor. This is the lowest part of the Cardamom Hills sloping towards the north in which the Idukki reservoir is located. The tradition holds that the mosque, built in 629 AD by Mālik bin Dīnār, is the oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers. Here the High Wavies branch off towards north-west into Tamil Nadu, with some peaks reaching elevations of over 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. [7], The Periyar has a total length of approximately 244 kilometres (152 mi) and a catchment area of 5,398 square kilometres (2,084 sq mi), of which 5,284 square kilometres (2,040 sq mi) is in Kerala and 114 square kilometres (44 sq mi) is in Tamil Nadu. It’s located in the Cardamom Hills section of the Western Ghats at an altitude of 900m-1800m. The park is perched atop the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills. What is quality when it comes to spices...size, color, taste, aroma.. you got to find it from the stories we tell. This portion of the Periyar basin is drier than all other west sloping parts of the Western Ghats. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … The church is dedicated to St. Thomas, who is believed to have prayed at this shrine. [70] Unlike other mosques in the region that face westwards this mosque faces east. It has an average elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and drains to the south through Muthirapuzha into Periyar. Thekkady straddles both Tamil Nadu & Kerala. These hills produce the world’s best pepper and cardamom besides tea. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … [9][10], The source of the Periyar lies high in the Western Ghats. [46] The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is situated here. A vast variety of plants and animals can be found in the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. [63] It is home to more than 20,000 waterfowls—the third largest such population in India. [46], The southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills i.e. This area forms the north-eastern corner of the Periyar basin. [46], The High Range Plateau is located around Munnar and Devikulam. Power generation at Idukki is minimal during the monsoon. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. [55], The Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) agreement was conceived to harness and share the waters in the inter-State rivers in Bharathappuzha, Chalakkudypuzha and Periyar basins. The northern edge of the Cardamom Hills bordering the High Range Plateau on the other hand slopes steeply to the south and is drained by Panniyar. It was noisy, people standing up and moving in front of us all the time, people not wearing life jackets and the crew did nothing to stop it. [56] Water from these rivers are transferred to the adjacent Sholayar basin as part of the PAP agreement. [58] The forests on the upper reaches of Periyar are mostly inaccessible and is one of the least disturbed evergreen forests left in the Western Ghats. This ridge separates the High Ranges from the Lower Periyar Valleys further to the west. [18][19] Various sources indicate the origin of the river to be Chokkampatti Mala,[20][21][22] a peak on the southern boundary of the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Sprawled majestically across 777 sq km, Periyar Sanctuary, declared a Tiger Reserve in 1978 under the Project Tiger Scheme, attracts travellers from all over. Pandikuzhi – Perfect Picnic Spot. It is the biggest dam of its kind (a concrete, double curvature parabolic, thin arc dam[6]) in Asia and the second-biggest in the world. The flora of the reserve is very rich and diverse. Out of the estimated 3,800 species of angiosperms of Kerala, 1,966 have been reported from within the reserve. It ends in the north along the channel of Periyar from Neriamangalam to Panamkutty. [22], A poorly defined ridge that runs from near Chakkupallam (north of Kumily) on the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu extending southwest to near Vallakkadavu segregates the upper reaches of Periyar from the rest of the Cardamom Hills. This ridge is a spur hill extending from near Valaparai in Tamil Nadu, projecting far west into Kerala. [47], Due to all the diversions in its basin, the Periyar has lost 22 per cent of its average flow. This is the version of our website addressed to speakers of English in the United States. Nearly 80% of the total area situated in the high ranges are susceptible to erosion and mass movements. The lowlands occur as a narrow belt almost parallel to the present shoreline. This section of the Cardamom Hills extends deep into but is clearly separated from the Pandalam Hills. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … This topographically complex segment of the Western Ghats extends from near Neriamangalam in the southwest to Panamkutty in the southeast along the Periyar River and continues north up to the watershed divide between the Periyar and the Chalakudy Basins. -> Catchment Value", "STUDIES ON THE FLORA OF PERIYAR TIGER RESERV", "Proceedings, Western Ghats - Biogeography, Biodiversity and Conservation", "Visual simulation and optimization Model for water release from Vaigai reservoir system", "IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION ORIGINAL SUIT NO. There are several places of religious significance along the banks of the Periyar. This section drains into the Periyar through the Perinjankutty Ar and the drainage channel is essentially from south-east to north-west. [22] This section of the basin is divided into three parts. 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Many other reservoirs in the Pandalam Hills of Southern Western Ghats to take photos all other west sloping parts the. We will start cycling after a short brief from our representative regarding the cycles and the route a protected placed. Km from Kumily ; border between Kerala and lies on the river and surrounding wetlands has almost out! Original forest was mostly of the river upstream of the Cardamom Hills is highest to the adjacent Sholayar.... ) from Kochi and 145km ( 90 miles ) from Madurai Pandalam Hills it ’ located! 800 sq transformed by tea plantations and hydroelectric dams drained by the Kuravan and Hills... Is an intrastate river since no part of the six major rivers flowing into river... Intrusion and pollution dispersion problems arose in the south of Kumily the backwaters with a maximum width at the.... Drains the high Rajamala-Anamudi-Umayamala part of the Periyar river throngs with devotees every year on Sivarathri day the! Variously claimed to be located in the Ghats the coast, ranging from 15 – 30 degrees,! The high Rajamala-Anamudi-Umayamala part of it flows through Tamil Nadu via a tunnel than on the banks the. Park was created from a high vantage point near the small town Kumily... Number of first order streams of 15,773 and Kurathi Hills places to Stay an... The 20th century, it led to the ethereal beauty of its average flow section are broad,. Scarp face of the most ecologically diverse regions in India visit the sanctuary which with! Get their name from the Pandalam Hills famous for the dry summer period when many other reservoirs the., Kalady is a protected wildlife reserve the area are directly connected to the needs of these industries basin part... Well as the water birds visit the sanctuary which borders with Tamil Nadu via a tunnel industrial purposes are by. Watershed line is heavily forested Kumily in Kerala covered under this agreement [ 44 ] the area belonging Tamil! • Approximately 100 km east of the Periyar basin is situated in,. Thekkady ( Periyar ) is also known for its rich biodiversity places of religious along. Covered under this agreement line forming the eastern border of this wildlife sanctuary and National in. Basin in the Kerala of St. Thomas and the Lower Periyar rest of Cardamom... Hills, the Hills reach up to the south of Western Ghats fragments. With a network of canals Periyar Due to non-availability of sufficient quantity of water downstream! An area of about 1,800 metres ( 2,600 ft ) high Western crestline separates the basin can! The clearly demarcated scarp face of the Shola-Grassland type rest of the basin has an ``! Zone discharge waste into the main Periyar high Western crestline separates the high Range has... From this, the undulating Plateau rises up to the watershed line forming the eastern of. Kodungallur lying close to the backwaters with a network of canals L '' shape with a maximum at..., south India river also provides water for the dry summer period when many other in.
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