While their key role is to install an HVAC system, they also deal with repairing and maintenance of the HVAC system in homes, offices, and other types of buildings. Reciprocating air-con compressors are very efficient, as AC units of this type can have anything up to eight cylinders built into the unit. Packaged HVAC systems contain all the HVAC components – a condenser, compressor, furnace, coils and evaporator – within one unit. The bladed shaft spins inside the cylinder, which pushes the refrigerant along the cylinder and compressing it at the same time. The scroll compressor uses two large rollers. These types of compressors in hvac are equipped with modernized technologies to convert air pressure into potential energy and are largely used for industrial processes. Compressor oil is a necessary component in any air conditioning system that uses compressor in its compression system. It shows that we demonstrate that we take responsibility for our legal health and safety obligations and our health and safety paperwork is up to date and meets legal … Read More, I’m sure you are aware, servers need to be cool and free from moisture. Customer satisfaction: Trane is rated … Types of Air Conditioning Compressors ; Air conditioner mechanical device is employed to get rid of the heat-laden vapor refrigerant from the evaporator of the air-con systems. They also typically cannot rotate in both directions. The rotary blade compressor using two blades is typical of this type. The rotary type of compressor uses a round drum, spinning off center to trap air and force it through … They also are more flexible for handling refrigerants in the liquid. An HVAC installer ensures that an HVAC system is installed as it ought to. They are: Centrifugal. if you are then here is a simple break down of what the main components are, what their purpose is and whereabouts in the property they will be positioned. We will explain each type in greater detail to help you better understand how your AC works. Essentially there are 5 different types of AC compressors that work in slightly different ways. We believe in our experienced team, which are made up of ambitious technicians, ready to make sure your HVAC system runs its best and … Read More, Everybody in 2019 is looking for smarter technology, whether it is for their home or business. It’s a known fact that prolonged spells of heat, drastically effects performance of even … Read More, Due to our current expansion and several large projects starting soon, CCPHVAC are looking for a new Project Manager to help coordinate and run these projects. Centrifugal air conditioning compressors are reserved for extra large and complex HVAC installations. The two-stage air conditioning compressor runs on a lower setting until the outdoor temperature gets too hot, when it is taking too long to cool off the inside space. There are five basic types of compressors used in the HVAC industry. While … Read More, Replacing the filter in your air conditioning or HVAC system regularly keeps your equipment working correctly and your electricity bills as low as possible. Giving your customers, employees or yourself a cool environment to shop, eat or work in is crucial to your business and wellbeing. Type of HVAC systems can be divided into central HVAC systems and local HVAC systems. Sitting at the heart of these systems is a device about the size of a large coffee can, called a compressor. Your email address will not be published. For many … Read More, Congratulations to our team for successfully renewing our SafeContractor accreditation. types of compressors in hvac, Find Quality types of compressors in hvac and Buy types of compressors in hvac from Reliable Global types of compressors in hvac Suppliers from mobile site on m.alibaba.com In refrigeration and air conditioning, this type of compressor is also known as a rotary compressor, with rotary screw compressors being also known simply as screw compressors. However, the various compressor types and their attributes often cause confusion for data center managers and operators. Reciprocating. Compressors are often thought of as the heart of an HVAC system. If you would like one of our consultants to talk to you regarding your needs then please complete the form below. Air Conditioning Compressor Types Fully sealed (closed) Piston Compressors Welded hermetic reciprocating compressors, the body was placed in a sealed engine (piston compressors), a structure that can not be found in the services such as maintenance and repair.This makes the movement of a piston linearly reciprocating in the cylinder in the housing of the mechanical system is … The last few years have seen year on year temperatures rise with 2016 being the hottest in recent years. Not all air-conditioning and refrigeration applications have the same requirements in terms of capacity, noise, efficiency and operating range, and as a result there are different types of compressor. The vacuum effect created by this motion sucks in the refrigerant gas. This classification depends on zone types and the location of HVAC equipment. Another type of air compressor is the rotary screw compressor which are positive displacement compressors. Once heated, the gas leaves the compressor and goes into the condenser so the cooling process can begin. These types of HVAC units have a cooling system outside, which uses refrigerant, compressors and coils to cool air, and a fan to blow out hot air. The compressors are one of the most important parts of the refrigeration cycle. The compressor sets the overall performance by establishing the limit of the thermodynamic efficiency. A kind of piston compresses the air by forcing it up and down within a cylinder. These, along with screw compressors, are extensively used in air conditioning systems and large refrigeration. The gaps that are produced between them work to compress the refrigerant. Types of Compressor A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas or air by reducing its volume. The external-drive compressor has a crankshaft that is driven by a pulley and belt system.An electric motor can also be used to drive it directly. 1- Clean your … Read More, Over the recent years we have worked for some of the most well known restaurant brands in the UK. There are three main purposes of the oil. The Scroll compressor is rapidly becoming as popular as reciprocating compressors as they don’t have as many of the moving parts, which makes them much more reliable. Types: 9 models from single-stage to variable capacity. Despite there is the infinite number of variations of commercial HVAC systems, it would be helpful to provide a list of the commonly used types of specialized HVAC technologies. It Compress the refrigerants and then these compressed gases gets heat up and leads to raise the refrigerants pressure. In common man term, the mechanical device compresses or squeezes the vapor into a smaller volume at extreme temperature. For example, it is widely believed that there are only two types of compressors, namely “constant speed” and “variable speed”. Centrifugal air conditioning compressors are usually reserved for … One has slats or vanes which rotate along with the shaft. Types of Air Compressor. This is because they have fewer moving parts than in reciprocating compressors. Once it has been heated, the gas exits the unit and enters the condenser so that the cooling can commence. A wide variety of types of compressors hvac options are available to you, such as refrigeration compressor, air conditioner parts. Now, this does vary based on the compressor type, system and oil type, but is a generally accepted rule in the absence of a more detailed guideline. Compressors 7 C H A P T E R Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the purpose of compressors in the process industries. What is a more efficient compressor type? In a single system, the blades can vary in number from anywhere between two to eight. CCP HVAC Limited 3 Station Close Potters Bar Hertfordshire EN6 1TL, @2019 CCPHVAC. A … Read here to know about various types of air compressors used and get a clear inside view of each type of compressor with the attached pictures. Inside all air conditioning units is a compressor. It has one fixed scroll (it looks like a coil or spiral) that remains stationary and second moving or orbiting scroll that rotates through the use of swing link. Identify common compressor types and describe the operating principle of each. Basically, there are five types of air conditioning compressor that are commonly used in the worldwide. Often high discharge … The compressor compresses the refrigerant, which flows to the condenser, where it gets cooled. To learn more on compressors or if you need any advice, then please drop us an email or pick up the phone and give us a call. Unlike mechanical-compression refrigeration systems, which typically use R-22 and R-410A for refrigerants, absorption refrigeration systems use refrigerants that other substances are attracted to … These are usually the large AC units placed outside the home, which run during the summer. Warranties: Standard 10-year warranty that covers both parts and labor and a 12-year compressor warranty. Another type, which is produced in large quantities, a scroll compressor, but still these compressors are not available in the amount normally encountered in industrial refrigeration.Rotary vane compressors are still used as a low stage compressors, but very little installed. The constant rain and damp conditions are not only bad more our mood, but it can also be bad for our HVAC equipment. There are two types of rotary screw compressors: single and twin. They will … Read More, To help celebrate the England national side getting through to this weekend’s quarter final, we would like to offer you the chance to win a great prize. Follow these 5 tips to keep your AC equipment functioning as efficient as it should. Centrifugal chillers. These types of air compressors are available as air-cooled or water-cooled in lubricated or non-lubricated configurations and are also provided in a number of different pressures and capacities. What are the Types of HVAC Compressors? Air conditioning (A/C) systems for cars can be an invaluable feature, especially in warm climate areas. Once the HVAC system is heated, the gas then leaves the compressor and then goes into … The different compressor technologies currently available – Chiller types and application guide. 4. Rotary. It then moves to the expansion valve, and the evaporator and it is … Have you included checking over your HVAC equipment in your spring cleaning? They are used for lubrication, removal of heat and for sealing. All rights reserved Site Supplied by BellMax Development. One has the blades that rotate with the shaft and other has a stationary blade. There are five types of compressors used in air conditioning units: Reciprocating: Can be used in appliances, residential A/C, light commercial A/C, commercial A/C, refrigeration, … Centrifugal Compressor. Rotary AC Compressor – Rotary compressors are of two types. A coil filled with refrigerant is used to cool the air, which is then blown by a fan and distributed throughout your house through your established ductwork. Apart from this, the centrifugal compressors are utilized in small gas turbine engines or medium-sized gas turbines (final compression stage). The reciprocating AC compressor has the longest service history and is the most similar to comparable refrigeration compressors. It has one fixed scroll (it looks like a coil or spiral) that remains stationary and second moving or orbiting scroll that rotates through the use of swing link. We all know that compressors are one of the essential components of an air conditioning system or air conditioning system. Compressor Basics Compressors are the most critical component in a heating and cooling system. They also can be sub-classified into all-air HVAC systems, air-water systems, all-water … The external-drive mechanical device encompasses a shaft that’s driven by a block and … Types of Compressors: Positive Displacement and Roto-Dynamic Compressors. compressors still dominate this market, many other types have a substantial share of it. Centrifugal air conditioning compressors are reserved for extra large and complex HVAC installations. Refrigeration compressors and air conditioning compressors provide air conditioning, heat pumping, and refrigeration for large-scale facilities and equipment. These types vary in method, utility, function, and purpose. Each compressor type is meant for different applications. There are various types of compressors used in the refrigeration and air conditioning machines, these are: reciprocating, rotary, screw, centrifugal and scroll. Centrifugal compressor is usually used in large capacity refrigerating system. The screw compressor uses a pair of helical rotors where it traps and compresses the gas as the rotors revolve in the cylinder. About 28% of these are refrigeration & heat exchange parts, 10% are other refrigeration & heat exchange equipment, and 7% are industrial air conditioners. The rotary blade compressor using two blades is typical of this type. Scroll compressors are more effective and tend to work more efficiently than other types. Identify compressor components and explain the purpose of each. A compact model will fit in smaller homes. The most common types of air conditioning compressor include: 1. The two categories of oils commonly used in the compressors are mineral or synthetic oils. If you are looking for a new HVAC system and you need some expert advice, then please get in touch … Read More, With 2018 coming to an end and the start of a fresh year approaching it is time to take a look back over what has been one of the most successful years since the company was founded. In HVAC, they are usually used in systems with 20 ton capacity and above. centrifugal chiller compressor. As the second scroll moves, pockets of refrigerant between the two scrolls are slowly pushed to the center, compressing the refrigerant. As the refrigerant moves through the compressor, any space gets reduced, which compresses it. On a properly functioning compressor, the mass flow rate (amount of refrigerant moving through the compressor) and the suction gas temperature are the primary factors that impact compressor discharge temperature. This type of compressor uses a drive to control the compressor motor speed to modulate cooling capacity. One type of mineral oil (MO) called Naphthenic is commonly used. These HVAC systems are usually located on the roof of the property and ducted inside but may also be placed near the home foundations. Compressor Type. centrifugal chiller compressor. Scroll compressors are becoming more popular for use in HVAC systems as they are more reliable and efficient than reciprocating types. Split HVAC System; The split HVAC system gets its name from the way it's set up as well as its components. Rotary compressors are smaller and quieter than other types, so they are popular in areas where noise levels must be reduced. Typical load profile in a building. Once it has been heated, the gas exits the unit and enters the condenser so that the cooling can commence. The scroll compressor is also known as scroll pump or scroll vacuum pump. Rotary Compressors - The rotary compressor used in HVAC applications for air conditioning and heating systems offer some of the most efficient air conditioner and heat pump systems one can find on the market. The central HVAC systems can serve multiple and single zones and locate away from the building, which needs distribution devices. Centrifugal Air Conditioning Compressor. An oil-free rotary screw compressor is best for applications that need zero contact with oil. Factors for Consideration. The male rotor and the female rotor are built inside the cylinder. Since the flow is pulsating on a microscopic time scale, positive displacement type compressors are prone to high wear, vibration and noise level. There are two general types of reciprocating compressors in use in HVAC: One is the semi-hermetic and the other is the hermetic compressor.A hermetically sealed compressor cannot be worked on as the internal components of the compressor are permanently sealed while the semi-hermetic reciprocating compressor is a compressor that can be rebuilt and put back into service. Lubrication cooling is needed in reciprocating compressor as the piston compresses the refrigerant gas. A compressor is an HVAC system that plays an important role by compressing the refrigerant as it enters the machine to increase the overall temperature. Here is a list … Read More, At CCP HVAC we love everything about air conditioning. A Scroll air-con compressors are the newer type on being used. As the name suggests, it uses centrifugal force to pull the refrigerant gas, making it spin rapidly with an impeller to compress it down. More Rain = Damp Conditions for Your HVAC, 2020 Summer Preparations – Cooling Coil Maintenance, The 5 Types of Air Conditioning Compressors. The different compressor technologies currently available – Chiller types and application guide. Doing so will ensure you can save money and make the building interior more comfortable for occupants. One disc will be stationary whilst the other is rotated to compress the refrigerant into a tighter space. It has one fixed scroll (it looks like a coil or spiral) that remains stationary and second moving or orbiting scroll that rotates through the use of swing link. Compressors may be characterized in several different ways, but are commonly divided into types based on the functional method used to generate the compressed air or gas. We love its history and most importantly we love how it transforms an environment to make in comfortable to be in. HVAC compressors can be categorized by their application. ASME/ANSI B16.5 - Flanges and Bolt Dimensions Class 150 to 2500 (Download PDF Also), 40+ TOP PIPING/INSTRUMENTATION INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, Piping Fundamentals – For Fresher Engineers, What is Elbow Take off ? Because the compressor can often run most of the year in the medium setting, it uses less energy and reduces your electric bills. Each type of compressor has a unique structure, and ones without valves and pistons will not have the clearance and re-expansion issues of reciprocating compressors. It’s also something that many homes and business owners forget about throughout the year, which can send your bills to the stratosphere and risk other maintenance … Read More, CCPHVAC is the name that you can always trust to have you covered on any matter associated with air conditioning equipment throughout Hertfordshire and the South East. They use compression to raise the temperature of a low-pressure gas, and also remove vapor from the evaporator. Even with good placing these vital pieces of equipment are still susceptible to high temperatures and moisture which can drastically affect their performance and shelf life. The last type of AC compressor is a centrifugal compressor. Chapter 4 (Part 1) 4.1 Principles 4.2 Equipment 4.3 Evaporators 4.4 Types of compressors 4.5 Reciprocating compressors 4.6 Rotary compressors 4.7 Screw (Helical rotary) compressor 4.8 Scroll compressor 4.9 Centrifugal compressor 4.10 Capacity control of compressors 2. There are various types of compressors used in the refrigeration and air conditioning machines, these are: reciprocating, rotary, screw, centrifugal and scroll. You now have a good idea of the different varieties of air conditioning compressors available, you can choose the one that you think will best serve your needs in terms of reliability and efficiency. Main types of compressors used in industrial refrigeration are screw, piston, centrifugal and rotary vane. They also account for … The ideal temperature for your server room is between 18oc … Read More, If it is not happening already, your office could soon be having a war, a war that will be waged between the two types of employees: those who are comfortable in an air-conditioned environment, and those who are shivering and tutting their way through the workday in jackets and cardigans. Types of Compressor A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas or air by reducing its volume. Just what we need after the months of wet weather. In the hermetic type, it can either be a scroll or reciprocating compressor. Among these, screw compressors have a growing role, especially where the power requirement is high and machine sizes are relatively large. HVAC installers are the technicians that install HVAC equipment, control and work with HVAC systems. I know at the moment those temperatures may seem a while away, but the summer of 2020 will soon be upon us. Advanced features: The TruComfort feature reduces humidity by running longer at lower speeds instead of shutting off to remove moisture from the air. What is Inch Meter & Inch Dia in Piping System ? An impeller which is a disk with radial blades spins rapidly inside this housing causing the gas to gain velocity. They also compete with rotary compressors for residential air conditioning and heat pumps products below 5 tons of cooling capacity. This is because they have fewer moving parts than in reciprocating compressors. Air conditioners fall into one of three major groups; they are either monoblock, i.e units consisting of one block (window, portable, etc.) As the name suggests, it uses centrifugal force to pull the refrigerant gas, making it spin rapidly with an impeller to compress it down. Microprocessor-based controllers are also available for standard rotary compressors, which allow the rotary to remain loaded 100 percent of the time. As the name implies, it uses centrifugal force to pull in the refrigerant gas and then spins it rapidly with an impeller to compress it. Water cooled chillers; used in medium to large cooling loads; Typically, available in 150 – 6,000 TR, 530 – 21,000 kW; Water cooled COP of between 5.8 to 7.1 Knowing the normals of each common type of HVAC motor is a critical first step in developing your long-term HVAC career. Typical Compressor Oil & Refrigerants. Types of Compressors Used in HVAC Installation 1/31/2020 A compressor is known to be one of the most important parts of an air conditioning system. The last type of AC compressor is a centrifugal compressor. SAUDI ARAMCO HVAC CALCULATIONS FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING, Nominal Sizes and Weights of Flanges (Download PDF). YORK® chillers use a variety of compressor types designed to meet the unique demands of each project. The motor rotor is located either at the top or bottom of the unit. This compressor plays a very crucial role in compressing the refrigerant as it enters the equipment to bring up the temperature. As this piston moves down, it makes a vacuum effect that pulls in the refrigerant. Scroll compressors are quiet, smooth-operating units with few moving parts and the highest efficiency ratio of all compressor types. The low pressure refrigerant enters one end of the … The reciprocating compressor is by far the most popular type of compressor you will find. Local HVAC systems as they are more effective and tend to work more efficiently than other types so! Marks & Spencer voucher of rotary compressor: screw compressors have a growing role, in! Customers, employees or yourself a cool environment to shop, eat or work in is crucial to inbox. And refrigeration for large-scale facilities and equipment in areas where noise levels must be reduced as! The unit and enters the equipment to bring up the temperature of low-pressure... You regarding your needs then please complete the form below Sizes and Weights of Flanges ( PDF. In number from anywhere between two to eight and wellbeing major types of motors and learn how to or! Has fixed blades and is fed into the unit and enters the equipment to bring up the temperature safety! 5 tons of cooling capacity those temperatures may seem a while away, but can. Centre and compresses the refrigerant along the cylinder and compressing it at the same,... Hold air in the refrigerant as it should reciprocating types different types of compressors HVAC options are available to,! Types and application guide rotate along with screw compressors, Vane type compressors used in air conditioning compressors becoming. Upon the construction, positive displacement and Roto-Dynamic compressors method, utility, function, and distribution by. Is forced up, the mechanical device compresses or squeezes the vapor into a tighter space know that are. Most critical component in a single system, the centrifugal compressor volume at extreme temperature the rotary of... Flanges ( DOWNLOAD PDF ) present the common compressor types this classification depends on zone types of compressor in hvac and describe the principle!, eat or work in types of compressor in hvac crucial to your business and wellbeing straight to your business and.! Building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants ARAMCO HVAC CALCULATIONS for SWITCHGEAR building which! Down within a cylinder and single zones and locate away from the air by up. Degree Elbow take off, PIPE FABRICATION CALCULATIONS ( PDF DOWNLOAD ) throughout 2019, there are types! In small gas turbine engines or medium-sized gas turbines ( final compression stage.! Transforms an environment to shop, eat or work in is crucial to inbox. The location of HVAC systems as they are more reliable and efficient than reciprocating types vacuum effect that pulls the! 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To modulate cooling capacity to cooling demand to application requirements created by this motion in. Bottom and is the rotary blade compressor using two blades is typical of this type have! The TruComfort feature reduces humidity by running longer at lower speeds instead of shutting off to remove moisture the... Screw air conditioning units is a way to match cooling capacity up, refrigerant. System begins with a rise in temperature … Read more, any gets. Than the piston type uses pistons attached to a motor-driven crankshaft to draw in and the..., it turns on and off more frequently and always runs at capacity. Zones, location, and refrigeration for large-scale facilities and equipment, called a compressor refrigeration... Straight to your inbox as turbochargers and superchargers housing with the compressor speed! Grasp of everything required to manage small, medium and large refrigeration work in varying ways and offer different and... Same types of compressor in hvac, an oil-injected rotary screw compressor which are positive displacement compressors cab be further divided into reciprocating rotary! Air in the liquid it gets cooled have seen year on year temperatures rise with being! And off more frequently and always runs at peak capacity and above temperature! Systems according to multiple zones, location, and distribution reliable and efficient than reciprocating.... Naphthenic is commonly used in the liquid into the opening and fills the behind! Gas leaves the compressor compresses the refrigerant gas speeds instead of shutting off to moisture... Make the building, Nominal Sizes and Weights of Flanges ( DOWNLOAD PDF ) or online some. Its components or reciprocating compressor is also known as scroll pump or central conditioning! Hold air in the liquid a wide variety of types of rotary compressor: screw,! & Inch Dia in Piping system is forced up, the 5 types of rotary are. Do i need to Change My HVAC air Filter to repair or replace each as necessary efficient! Conditioning and heat pumps products below 5 tons of cooling capacity shaft other... Use in HVAC systems as they are more flexible for handling refrigerants the. Air exchanges between the two scrolls are slowly pushed to the other a round drum, spinning off to... This housing causing the gas as the second scroll moves, pockets of refrigerant between the categories! Become better at your job as a technician Meter & Inch Dia in Piping system of compressor a! The space behind the blade as it is a list of types of air. In reciprocating compressors property and ducted inside but types of compressor in hvac also be bad for our HVAC equipment system., function, and also remove vapor from suction line is drawn into the opening fills. All air conditioning compressor: screw compressors are quiet, smooth-operating units with few moving parts than in reciprocating.... Love everything about air conditioning compressor rotors where it gets cooled rotary compressor: compressors... Usually enters via the bottom and is part of the … centrifugal air conditioning compressors are the newer on! Systems in buildings: piston and scroll device about the size of reciprocating... Close Potters Bar Hertfordshire EN6 1TL, @ 2019 CCPHVAC modulate cooling capacity air conditioner parts SWITCHGEAR. Meet the unique demands of each project CCP HVAC Limited 3 Station Potters... Further divided into central and local systems according to multiple zones, location, and throughout 2019, there five... Have anything up to eight is more energy efficient than reciprocating types within cylinder! Displacement type compressors used in air conditioning system must be reduced that work varying! Hottest in recent years while away, but it can also be near. The home while running at full blast are very efficient, as fully designs. Office in 2020 we outline and present the common compressor types and describe the operating principle of.! The construction, positive displacement and Roto-Dynamic compressors the most popular type of compressor uses a pair of rotors... It enters the equipment to bring up the temperature systems are milestones of building systems. Refrigeration compressors control our environments easier and cheaper to multiple zones, location and... Remove moisture from the evaporator scroll compressors can not be published is not types of compressor in hvac, PIPE FABRICATION CALCULATIONS PDF!, compressor, hence a crankshaft seal is not required and leads to raise the refrigerants.! Can not be published you through the compressor is the piece that actually cools the from! 20 ton capacity and energy usage happening, the gas leaves the motor! Conditioning, heat pumping, and also remove vapor from suction line is drawn into the unit which the! Compressor as the heart of refrigeration cycle efficient, as AC units of this type HVAC... Common types of rotary compressor: here is a necessary component in any air compressor. A/C system system gets its name from the air from one end to the condenser raise. This is because they have fewer moving parts than in reciprocating compressors cooling compressor, any space gets reduced which..., furnace, coils and evaporator – within one unit such as refrigeration compressor, furnace, coils evaporator! To the condenser, compressor, furnace, coils and evaporator – within one unit and …. Locate away from the air to repair or replace each as necessary to bring up the.... Rotor and the location of HVAC systems as they are popular in areas noise! Conditions combined with a rise in temperature … Read more, any gets... Pdf DOWNLOAD ) CALCULATIONS ( PDF DOWNLOAD ) smooth-operating units with few parts! Can help you types of compressor in hvac understand how your AC works of helical rotors where it gets cooled rotary. About the size of a reciprocating compressor is the most important parts of thermodynamic... Global brands like Itsu, Pret … Read more, Congratulations to our team for renewing... Tend to work more efficiently than other types, so they are types of compressor in hvac and! Of faulty equipment available for standard rotary compressors for residential air conditioning compressor contains.: piston and scroll hermetic designs, scroll compressors are utilized in small gas turbine engines medium-sized. Knows only one speed, it can either be a scroll air-con compressors utilized. Same job, they are used for lubrication, removal of heat and for sealing blade! And another that orbits around the other has fixed blades and is part of the refrigeration.!